Hypertension (high blood pressure) affects approximately one billion people worldwide and that number is expected to increase in future years. A large number of hypertension cases have no underlying medical cause, but are a secondary symptom of other conditions like kidney disease or endocrine disease. Hypertension can also occur during pregnancy, or may be an indicator of other more serious conditions. Effective treatment and management of hypertension (like exercise, diet and healthy blood pressure) are important in order to avoid further complications or risks like heart attack or stroke.